AC to DC Converter Circuit:
There are mainly two types of converters widely used for AC-DC conversation purpose. Traditional Transformer-based linear converter which uses a simple diode bridge, capacitor, voltage regulator. Simple Diode Bridge can be constructed either with single semiconductor device like DB107 or with 4 independent diodes like 1N4007. The other type of converter is SMPS or Switch mode power supply which uses a high-frequency small transformer and a switching regulator to provide DC output.
In traditional Transformer based design we are using simple diodes and capacitor to convert the Alternating current into Direct Current and an optional voltage regulator to regulate the output DC voltage from AC. The project will be an AC-DC converter using a Transformer with an input voltage of 230V and output of 12V 1A.
220v to 12v dc converter circuit diagram:
The above AC-DC converter circuit is simple and the transformer is used to step down the 230V AC to 13V AC. Here four general purpose rectifier diode 1N4007 is used to rectify the AC input. 1N4007 has a peak repetitive reverse voltage of 1000V with an average rectified forward current of 1A. These four diodes are used to convert the 13V AC output across the transformer. The diodes are used to make a bridge converter which is an essential part of the AC to DC conversion circuit.
Working of the AC to DC Converter Circuit
A step-down transformer is used to convert the high voltage AC to the low voltage AC. The transformer is PCB mounted and it is a 1-ampere 13-volt transformer. However, during the load, the transformer voltage drops approximately 12.5-12.7 volt.
The essential part of the circuit is a diode bridge which consists of four diodes. The diode is an electronic semiconductor device which converts the alternating current to direct current.
Components Required for AC to DC Converter Circuit
- Transformer with 1A 13V Rating
- 2.4 pcs 1N4007 Diodes
- 3.A 1000uF Electrolytic capacitor with the 25V rating.
- 4.Few single strand wires
- 6.LDO or a Linear Voltage Regulator as per specification (Here LM2940 used).
- 7.A multimeter to measure the voltage.
Limitations of Transformer based AC-DC Converter Circuit:
Transformer-based AC to DC conversion is a common choice where DC is required but it has certain drawbacks.
- Any situations where the input AC voltage has possibilities to fluctuate or if the AC voltage drops significantly, the output AC voltage across the transformer also gets dropped. So a 230V AC to 12V DC converter cannot be powered in 110V AC line. To address this issue, an additional setting is provided for different input voltage levels.
- Despite not having a universal input voltage range, it is a costly choice, as the transformer itself costs more than 60% of the total manufacturing cost of the converter circuit.
- Another limitation is low conversion efficiency. The transformer gets heat up and the waste of unnecessary energy.
- The Transformer is heavy stuff which unnecessarily increases the weight of the product.
- Due to the transformer, the bigger space is required inside the product to fit the converter circuit or at least the transformer.
To overcome these limitations, SMPS or switch mode power supply is a preferable choice.
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